What are toxicological effects?

Toxicological effects are dependent on the concentration of chemicals within the target organ and on the duration of exposure. Several pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) govern chemical disposition in the nervous system.

What are toxicological effects?

Toxicological effects are dependent on the concentration of chemicals within the target organ and on the duration of exposure. Several pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) govern chemical disposition in the nervous system.

What is systemic toxicity?

Systemic Toxicity tests evaluate the generalized biological effects to organs and tissues following exposure to a medical devices, bio-material, or their extracts. The term systemic implies that the exposure occurs by one route and the toxic substance is carried to distant locations causing an adverse effect.

What is a toxicity profile?

A summary of the toxic effects of a particular substance, including the levels of exposure at which these effects occur.

What do toxicological studies tell us about a substance?

Toxicology studies are used to characterize the toxicity profile of a drug by identifying its impact on organ structure and / or functionality. This includes assessment of the severity and reversibility of toxicity, as well as dose ranges and their relationship to exposure.

What is toxicological stability?

Abstract : Drug stability means the ability of the pharmaceutical dosage form to maintain its physical, chemical, therapeutic, microbial and toxicological properties during the time of storage and usage by the patient.

What are signs of systemic toxicity?

Signs + Symptoms

  • CNS Symptoms. Minor Signs/Symptoms. Tongue and perioral numbness. Parasthesias. Restlessness. Tinnitus.
  • Cardiovascular Symptoms. Early Signs: Hypertension and tachycardia. Late Signs. Peripheral vasodilation + profound hypotension. Sinus bradycardia, AV blocs. Conduction defects (Prolonged PR, Prolonged QRS)

What are the main objectives of toxicological examination?

The goals of toxicity testing are to identify possible adverse effects of exposure to environmental agents, to develop dose-response relationships that can elucidate the severity of effects associated with known exposures, and ultimately to predict the effects of exposure of human populations.

What are toxicological parameters?

Standard toxicological parameters such as body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology, gross observations at necropsy, organ weights, and histopathological evaluation of tissues will be conducted for all animals that die, are euthanized prior to scheduled termination, or are euthanized at scheduled study …

What four factors can affect toxicity?

What Factors Influence Toxic Exposure Levels?

  • Point Of Entry. A substance can only affect a person or animal by coming into physical contact with the body.
  • Dosage and Toxicity. These are perhaps the two most important factors determining the hazard presented by any given substance.
  • Rate Of Removal.
  • Biological Variation.

What is last Syndrome?

Abstract. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) is a life-threatening adverse event that may occur after the administration of local anesthetic drugs through a variety of routes. Increasing use of local anesthetic techniques in various healthcare settings makes contemporary understanding of LAST highly relevant.

What is toxicological study?

How toxicity is measured?

Toxicity can be measured by the effect the substance has on an organism, a tissue or a cell. We know that individuals will respond differently to the same dose of a substance because of a number of factors including their gender, age and body weight. Therefore a population-level measure of toxicity is often used.

What are the four main factors that affect the toxicity of a substance?

The toxicity of a substance usually depends on the following factors: Form and innate chemical activity. Dosage , especially dose -time relationship. Exposure route….Other Factors

  • Decrease toxicity ( antagonism )
  • Add to toxicity (additivity)
  • Increase toxicity (synergism or potentiation)