Terms in this set (6)
What are the 6 steps of translation and protein synthesis?
Terms in this set (6)
- Step 1 of Translation. mRNA attaches to the ribosome.
- Step 2 of Translation. tRNA’s attach to free amino acids in the cytoplasmic “pool” of amino acids.
- Step 3 of Translation. tRNA carries its specific amino acid to the ribosome.
- Step 4 of Translation.
- Step 5 of Translation.
- Step 6 of Translation.
What are codon codes?
A codon is a trinucleotide sequence of DNA or RNA that corresponds to a specific amino acid. The genetic code describes the relationship between the sequence of DNA bases (A, C, G, and T) in a gene and the corresponding protein sequence that it encodes. The cell reads the sequence of the gene in groups of three bases.
How many triplet codes are there?
What does a triplet mean?
1 : one of three offspring produced in the same pregnancy. 2a : a combination, set, or group of three.
How is a protein made step by step?
Protein synthesis is the process in which cells make proteins. It occurs in two stages: transcription and translation. Transcription is the transfer of genetic instructions in DNA to mRNA in the nucleus. It includes three steps: initiation, elongation, and termination.
What is a Anticodon?
An anticodon is a trinucleotide sequence complementary to that of a corresponding codon in a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence. An anticodon is found at one end of a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule.
What are the 3 stop codons?
Each three-letter sequence of mRNA nucleotides corresponds to a specific amino acid, or to a stop codon. UGA, UAA, and UAG are stop codons.
What is the last step of protein synthesis?
Why is it a triplet code?
In the genetic code, each three nucleotides in a row count as a triplet and code for a single amino acid. So each sequence of three codes for an amino acid. So the code that would make one protein could have hundreds, sometimes even thousands, of triplets contained in it.
How many letters are in DNA code?
What is the triplet code?
A triplet code is where each codon (within the code), consists of three, nonoverlapping, nuceoltides. The code is degenerate, as different triplet base pairs can code for the same amino acid.
What are the three codons?
The three-letter nature of codons means that the four nucleotides found in mRNA — A, U, G, and C — can produce a total of 64 different combinations. Of these 64 codons, 61 represent amino acids, and the remaining three represent stop signals, which trigger the end of protein synthesis.
How do you read an Anticodon?
Since codons in mRNA are read in the 5′ → 3′direction, anticodons are oriented in the 3′ → 5′ direction, as Figure 3-19 shows. Each tRNA is specific for only one amino acid and carries that amino acid attached at its free 3′ end. Amino acids are added to the tRNA by enzymes called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.
Why is codon 3 bases?
DNA is comprised of 4 different nucleotides (A, C, T, and G), whereas proteins are made of 20 amino acids. Codons are nucleotide triplets that encode for amino acids. Thus, in order for the 4 nucleotides to account for all 20 amino acids, a minimum of 3 base pairs are required.
What are the stages of translation in biology?
Translation is a process by which the genetic code contained within a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule is decoded to produce a specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. It occurs in the cytoplasm following transcription and, like transcription, has three stages: initiation, elongation and termination.
Why do we have 64 codons?
Because DNA consists of four different bases, and because there are three bases in a codon, and because 4 * 4 * 4 = 64, there are 64 possible patterns for a codon. Since there are only 20 possible amino acids, this means that there is some redundancy — several different codons can encode for the same amino acid.
What is a codon sequence?
A codon is a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis. The genetic code is described as degenerate, or redundant, because a single amino acid may be coded for by more than one codon. …
What are the 4 codons?
…by a unique sequence, or codon, of three of the four possible base pairs in the DNA (A–T, T–A, G–C, and C–G, the individual letters referring to the four nitrogenous bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine).